Summary: Career Warfare: Review and Analysis of dAlessandros Book

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This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Please send me more details about the incentive when they are available. First time log on Round 1: Social Round. Rule sets were made for the taxonomy and consistently followed. The main subject of the news story was identified, and the most specific category within the taxonomy was assigned.

For example, if the story described anthrax research, then the story was categorized into the more-specific anthrax category instead of the more-general research category. Two investigators independently reviewed the categories assigned. Variances were discussed between the investigators, and a single final code was assigned. A quantitative curriculum analysis of how the unstructured curriculum of the BDL compares with the structured curriculum of the biodefense graduate program at George Mason University Manassas, Virginia 17 was then performed. The George Mason University curriculum, which was the first biodefense graduate program curriculum available on the Internet in , was chosen as a standard because it was designed by Ken Alibek, MD PhD, who was the former director of the Soviet Union's offensive biological weapons program and is now the director for education for the George Mason University program.

The curriculum evaluation was performed similarly to the content evaluation. The topics in each of the required and elective courses in the George Mason University graduate program were assigned a category. There were a total of six categories in the required courses and 13 categories in the elective courses.

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Each news story was also coded into a single elective course category, independent of the required course category. Therefore, each news story was coded twice, once in a required course category including the not-appropriate category and once in an elective course category. Rule sets were made for the category assignments and were consistently followed. The main subject of the news story was identified, and the most appropriate categories were assigned. For example, if the news story was about smallpox vaccine, then the story was categorized into the smallpox required course category.

If another news story was about vaccines in general, then it was assigned the not-appropriate required course category. Finally, all news stories regarding vaccines were categorized into the elective course category of approaches to biological warfare medical treatment and response. Variances were discussed between the investigators and a single final category was assigned. A quantitative analysis of overall usage of the BDL was performed by using an Internet server log file statistical analysis program Site Meter, Washington, DC and the results were analyzed for descriptive statistics e.

A qualitative analysis of individuals' opinions of the BDL was performed, in which user-submitted comment forms were analyzed for common themes. Finally, a quantitative bibliometric analysis of the BDL was performed for the purpose of determining its impact factor on the Internet. Search terms were entered into three search engines Google; Yahoo! From January 1, , to December 31, , biodefense news stories were posted in the news library. The five most markedly covered news categories in our biodefense taxonomy, in descending order, were anthrax, research, public policy, smallpox, and public health Table I.

The news library was updated on days during the study period. Assuming that the curators were unavailable i. These news stories came from different Internet news sources e. All news sources were in English. From January 1, , to December 31, , the BDL was used by 23, visitors, who accessed 51, pages of information.

Overall usage has continued to grow steadily over time. Qualitative analysis of the 20 user-submitted comment forms showed that the visitors represented the spectrum of biodefense learners, from first responders to physicians to biodefense researchers to biodefense analysts. The visitors used the site as a regular reference source to keep them up to date with the field of biodefense. Reviews from these visitors, as well as journals, have been extremely favorable.

So check out BiodefenseEducation. This means that, for these search terms, the BDL has the highest impact factors on the Internet and therefore is among the top 10 authoritative Internet sites on these subjects Table V. The Association of American Medical Colleges has recommended that the nation's medical schools should thoroughly educate medical students about biodefense and should continue this education throughout the spectrum of medical education, during graduate education and continuing medical education.

Indeed, the preeminent biodefense think tank in the United States, in a published retrospective on the 5-year anniversary of the anthrax attacks, deplored the state of biodefense knowledge among medical providers and the general state of biodefense educational programs for them. The challenge is how to deliver continuing education in biodefense to an already busy and information-saturated workforce that expresses a preference to learn about biodefense from the media, 7 in a manner that is integrated into individuals' workflow and lifestyle.

Our method is based on the situated learning model of the morning report conference, with an average of one case presented each day in the form of a biodefense news story, which, after reading, participants may discuss if they wish. Over 2 years, we have demonstrated that this educational method works and our hypothesis was correct. A steady stream of biodefense-related news stories averaging one per day from a broad range of authoritative national and international news sources, presented themselves for use and over time developed into a high-quality unstructured curriculum of biodefense that unfolded in practice and that closely paralleled the structured curriculum of a formal biodefense graduate program.

The news stories covered a very broad range of biodefense-related categories, often in great depth. The news stories covered all of the required categories in the structured curriculum of a formal biodefense graduate program, especially the six category A agents.


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The news stories also covered all of the elective categories in the structured curriculum of a formal biodefense graduate program. News stories discussed breakthroughs in understanding the Bacillus anthracis organism, new techniques for anthrax detection, controversies regarding the current anthrax vaccine, development of new anthrax vaccines and countermeasures, the continuing investigation of the anthrax attacks and the outcomes of the survivors, criteria to determine whether an infected location has been successfully decontaminated, ongoing false-positive detections of anthrax attacks, and current anthrax outbreaks around the world.

When surveyed, individual users commented favorably on the BDL. Additionally, because of the depth and breadth of its coverage, a significant number of biodefense-related Internet sites had links to the BDL.


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  • The ultimate result of all of this effort was steady and growing usage of the BDL by individuals around the world. In traditional print publishing, through bibliometric analysis performed by Thomson Scientific, each journal article and each journal can be assigned an impact factor, which is a measure of authority based on the number of citations each receives from other journal articles. The top three search engines Google, Yahoo! The end result is that the World Wide Web pages and Internet sites with the highest impact factors are listed first in the results returned by a search engine for a given search term.

    Today, the Internet is rapidly becoming the place where answers to questions in many domains, including medicine, are most commonly sought. This means that, for these search terms, the BDL has one of the highest impact factors on the Internet and therefore is among the top 10 authoritative Internet sites on these subjects. This biodefense continuing education program would be pedagogically based on the situated learning model of Lave and Wenger, 13 as implemented in morning report conferences, and would use as learning objects a curated stream of biodefense-related news stories delivered daily to medical providers.

    The project's hypothesis was that, over time, this program would allow a biodefense educational curriculum to unfold in practice, with its news stories aggregating into an unstructured curriculum that would closely parallel the structured curriculum of a biodefense graduate program, and such a program would become a well-regarded source of continuing education in biodefense.

    The goal of this study was to perform a summative evaluation of this program to test this hypothesis.

    Material Information

    The design, operation, and implementation of the BDL were previously described in detail. The purpose of the news library is to serve as a source of daily situated learning and continuing professional development in the form of biodefense news stories. The news library consists of an annotated list of links to nonclassified biodefense news stories and recently published, peer-reviewed, journal articles, which are posted daily after software agents scan several thousand international news sources for biodefense-related news stories Google, Mountain View, California.

    Specifically, standards and guidelines for story inclusion are based on Thomson Scientific Current Web Contents site selection criteria, 16 to ensure that only news stories from credible and authoritative national and international news sources are chosen. The biodefense news stories are then automatically archived by category in reverse chronological order, to facilitate review of biodefense news stories by category at a later time.

    To assist medical providers who are new to the biodefense field and require an initial education in biodefense, the news library contains a reading list of classic articles covering important topics in biodefense.